Value Added (VA) measures were introduced into the Primary School (KS2) Achievement and Attainment Tables in 2003, to give a better and fairer measure of school effectiveness than raw results alone. VA allows meaningful comparisons to be made between schools with different intakes, by taking into account prior attainment the biggest single predictor of pupil results.
However, a number of other factors which are outside a schools control, such as gender, SEN, mobility, and levels of deprivation, have also been observed to impact on pupil results, even after allowing for prior attainment. CVA goes a step further than the current VA measures by taking these factors into account. This allows us to reflect more realistically, and therefore more fairly, the impact each school makes considering the particular circumstances of its pupils intake. As with existing VA, CVA produces a single measure which can be used when comparing schools against the national average, or against each other.
Following extensive consultation between the Department, academics and 430 volunteer secondary schools, a CVA methodology, measuring progress between KS2-KS4, was developed and piloted throughout 2004 and 2005. A KS2-4 CVA measure will be published for all schools featuring in the 2006 Secondary School Achievement and Attainment Tables.
This year we have conducted a pilot with 354 volunteer schools to test and evaluate the introduction of CVA into the Primary School Tables. These schools have helped shape the development of a KS1-2 CVA measure by testing the necessary data checking procedures and providing feedback on the methodology and accuracy of pupil characteristic and results data for Key Stage 2 pupils.
The pilot will be evaluated both in terms of the impact on schools and the wider audience and from a data handling and processing perspective. An evaluation questionnaire is available on the website.
Some users may wish to understand the model and calculations used to produce the CVA measures. Further detail on CVA methodology is included in the Technical Document: CVA. The Ready Reckoners show the particular effect of each factor on a school's CVA measure. These can both be found on the DCSF website: www.dcsf.gov.uk/performancetables
What will CVA be used for?
CVA has been developed for use across Government, wherever there is a need to assess school effectiveness. Ofsted and the Department are committed to consistent use of an agreed methodology. The current planned uses include:
- the Achievement and Attainment Tables
- Ofsted Inspections (for information only - see below)
- RAISEonline (which will replace the PAT and PANDA from 2006)
- The School Profile
- Conversations between schools and their School Improvement Partners
As this list shows, it is clear that CVA is intended to support both the accountability framework, and self-evaluation and improvement at a school and pupil level.
England's Ofsted inspectors have access to CVA data along with attainment and contextual data for all key stages to help inform their judgements of school effectiveness during inspections. From 2006 the data will be provided in RAISEonline, the new online system which is replacing Ofsted's PANDA and the DCSF' Pupil Achievement Tracker (PAT). This is being introduced on a phased basis. Further information and a timetable can be accessed at: http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/schools/dataandinformationsystems.cfm. For the purposes of inspection, the 2005 validated PANDA will continue to be used until 2006 data is released through RAISEonline. Schools may present to inspectors 2006 information, including analysis from the Tables or their view of RAISEonline.
We are also testing the use of fine grading as part of the CVA Pilot. The levels achieved at KS2 have been split into ten possible outcomes (e.g. level 4 becomes 4.0, 4.1, 4.2 etc). Fine grades use the underlying marks data to create this finer measure of achievement. The quality of the marks data and the calculations used to establish fine grades are being tested and evaluated as part of this pilot. If this evaluation proves successful, we will use fine grades in the Primary Tables from next year.
This year, fine grades have only been used in the CVA calculations. This means that fine grades may contribute to any differences between VA measures and CVA measures for the pilot schools.
2006 Post-16 CVA Data
Considered to be the same as above.